The Artificer is an artisan who works with both stone and wood, to fashion everything from exquisite jewelry, to cabinets and chairs, from small crafting components like weapon handles, to large components like poles or beams used by other crafters. Artificers eventually develop their skills more as a carpenter or as a mineralist.
Artificers can choose to be a carpentry as their expertise which includes crafting stout furniture, hand tools, small components, ranged weapons (bows, crossbows) & melee weapons (clubs, staves) as well as building ships at higher levels.
Artificers can also also choose to be a Mineralist who specializes in working with stone and gems to religious artifacts to focus spell power, powerful arcane weapons and stat enhancing jewelry.
At level 11 you are given a quest allowing you to choose a specialization within you parent tradeskill.
Once you pick a specialization, or sooner if you know which route you plan to take before hand, you should set the option that you do not choose to negative (the – button on the right of the bar on the skills window). This will push your skill in that other type down to 0 and allow you to put those points back into the two skill types you will need (your parent type and your specialization type). Do not leave points in the type you didn’t specialize in, or you will only hurt your ability to craft items of your specialization as well as delay when you learn new skills.
You may change specializations later on if you choose, but you will lose all recipes, including special dropped rare recipes if you do. If you change within your parent class, such as Tailoring to Leatherworking, you will not lose any skill points but you will need to change the direction of your skills to drive them in the right direction. If you change to another trade entirely, like tailoring to carpenter, you start over at level 1 with 0 skills.
Artificers must harvest materials suitable for their crafting skill, such as lumber (lumberjacking) and stout rock & precious stones (quarrying).
Information taken from VanguardMMORPG